Tuesday, March 19, 2019

"Perception versus facts" Is School Strike for Climate just another Doomsday Prophecy? (UH)

Working paper. March 15, 2019, Swedish tabloid Dagens Nyheter (DN) with editor-in-chief Peter Wolodarski, accepted an opinion-piece (op-ed), for publication:
-We support School strike for Climate and [the image-person] (DN Debatt. ”Vi klimatforskare stödjer ... skolungdomarna”).
The supporters of the children's movement, the op-ed in Dagens Nyheter, was not one, two, or three contributors, but a crowd of 270!? The names are found at the bottom of this post (Appendix 2). Even though the headline suggests they are climate researchers, a more rational description is that the contributors have a connection to the academy. Note, it is not a science output or a news article. It's just an opinion piece.

The background to the action - a crowd of 270 sapiens writing an op-ed - was that during the Swedish parliament election 2018, a child showed up with a sign: "School-strike for climate". According to the mother, who's in the entertainment business, the child has a neuro-psychiatric diagnose, explained by heritage (from the mother) and by culture - the conflict between the parents. A book about the outcome of the parent's conflict was published in parallel with the child's appearance outside the Swedish parliament. In the book, besides attributing the family's situation on the child's school and the state of the planet, the mother sends her regards to a former Swedish weather forecaster who years ago turned climate pundit, and who himself has gone into politics with a Marxist agenda. The child has also revealed she has replaced real food with a vegan alternative.

(1) Was the message sent by the group of opinion-makers (n=270) rational or emotional? (2) where do ideas like this originate from? (3) Is the message consistent with science?

In 2010, Sperber et al. published a paper on Epistemic vigilance, suggesting we should scrutinize messages to disclose any factoids or hidden agendas:
Humans massively depend on communication with others, but this leaves them open to the risk of being accidentally or intentionally misinformed. To ensure that, despite this risk, communication remains advantageous, humans have, we claim, a suite of cognitive mechanisms for epistemic vigilance. Here we outline this claim and consider some of the ways in which epistemic vigilance works in mental and social life by surveying issues, research and theories in different domains of philosophy, linguistics, cognitive psychology and the social sciences (Abstract).
Let's check the facts.

Earth and ClimateEarth as we know our Blue planet is approximately 4.5 Billion years old. Climate is a systemic phenomenon explained by a complex interplay between atmospheric, hydrospheric, cryospheric, lithospheric, and biospheric components (IPCC, 2013). ~540 Million years ago, with CO2-levels > 10 times as high as today, the Cambrian explosion occurred seeing the emergence of multicellular organisms and biodiversity similar to today. Since the Cambrian explosion, most of the atmospheric CO2 has been stored in the oceans, bedrock, and forests, and Earth has gone through a multitude of climate changes (see figure 1). For example, 2.6 Mya when the Pliocene epoch changed to Pleistocene (the Ice Age; 2 580,000 to 11 700). 

Figure 1. Variation in temperature and CO2-levels. (see numerous references in the subtext to the figure).

Our lineages parted way with the chimpanzees more than seven million years ago (Wilson ,2016). 4-3.5 Mya, our ancestors started to consume animal-source food (bone marrow). That triggered (1) a change of the shape of their hands, (2) an expansion of their brain, and (3) a reduction of their gut. It also opened the door for our species - Homo (Aiello & Wheeler, 1995Mann, 2018; Thompson et al. 2019).  

The expansion of the brain, growing slowly from the occipital lobe and forward, eventually led to the emergence of various mental faculties and abilities to accompany emotional faculties - PRIMEs (Coolidge & Wynn, 2018Buck, 1985Rozin & Royzman, 2001). Dramatic incidents some 80 - 70 thousand years ago saw population bottlenecks coincide with the emergence of creativity - the general cognitive ability to use imagery to combine or melding [unrelated] abstractions into new concepts (Österberg, 2012; Pringle, 2016; Wadley, 2011; Ambrose, 1998).

 ~20 000 years ago, Earth's temperature started to increase, interrupting the Pleistocene. ~7000 years later something caused Lakes Agassiz and Missoula to burst, dumping vast amounts of freshwater into the oceans which in turn caused sea levels to rise more than 100 meters. It also pushed Earth back into what is described as rapid cooling (Fogarty, 2010, Mega-flood triggered cooling 13,000 years ago: scientists). A recent discovery suggests something hit Earth and wiped out North American Megafauna and the Clovis people (Moore et al. 2019The Human Origin Project, 2019; Menounos et al 2017; University of South Carolina, 2019). Since Younger dryas, there hasn't been any rise in sea-levels (see figure 2).

Figure 2. Fleming et al. 1998, Fleming 2000, and Milne et al. 2005 (Wikipedia).

Even so, flood myths are found in the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Hindu myths, dating 1800 - 600 BC (Wikipedia). They often serve as warnings, demanding people to act swiftly to avoid catastrophic events. Since the start of the common era (the birth of Christ) about 200 doomsayers have been recorded (Here's a list with about 200 of them).

During 800-900 AD, Christianity arrived in the southern parts of mid-Sweden. The faith suppressed the pagan culture which probably was rooted since the period of Corded ware and influences by the Yamnaya culture. Teaching, available only for people of the upper class, relied on religion. Therefore, a common theme was about Jesus, at birth and on the cross, a tradition which still prevails in the western world.

In the 1400 century, a young girl, Birgitta Birgersdotter (1303-1373) lived in the coastal area of Upland, Fennoscandia, to the border of the Baltic sea. Birgitta, or Bridget, was the daughter of a famous lawmaker and her blood-line had royal connections on her mother's side. Bridget was also known under another name - 'Princess of Nericia' - after being married to the Lord of Närke in south-central Sweden. She had her first child at 16 years of age and was later appointed as one of six patron saints of Europe. At an early age, Birgitta claimed she had had revelations - the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities. The revelations are said to have started around the age of 10, a likely interaction between a child's mental imagery and the 'zeitgeist' that had prevailed in the area for the past five or six hundred years. Consequently, even though she had never set foot in the Middle East, she claimed to have imagined Jesus, at birth, and on the cross. These 'Celestial revelations' were picked up by the newly established church, whose priests used every possible means to spread their message to overthrow competing ideologies. Bridget probably became something of an image-person for the church. This was probably similar to occasionally being mentioned in modern tabloids. It is also likely to assume that the attention had a profound impact on Bridget's confidence/Self-Efficacy, manifested in her initiative to erect the monastery in Vadstena. Bridget who was privileged enough to visit Spain, Jerusalem, and Bethlehem on pilgrimages, moved to Rome and lived a long life. But despite having done those travels, she claimed it was 'hounded by debts and by opposition'.

~hundred years after 'Princess of Nericia' had her revelations, another young girl, from Domrémy-la-Pucelle, situated ~2000 km to the south of Uppland, also claimed she has had revelations emanating from figures of established ideologies - an archangel.
Joan claimed to have received visions of the Archangel Michael, Saint Margaret, and Saint Catherine of Alexandria instructing her to support Charles VII and recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War (Wikipedia).
Jeanne was the daughter of Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle Romée. Hence, we know her by her paternal surname: Jeanne d'Arc (1412-1431). When Jeanne claimed her first revelations, France was lacerated by eighty years of war with England, the so-called 100-year war (1337-1453).
The uncrowned King Charles VII sent Joan to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief army. She gained prominence after the siege was lifted only nine days later. Several additional swift victories led to Charles VII's coronation at Reims. This long-awaited event boosted French morale and paved the way for the final French victory Wikipedia).
So when 16 years old 'Jeanne from Pucelle' jumped on the horse to fight other people's wars, in this case, the uncrowned Charles VII, she became an image-person for another movement, in this case, King Charles VII quest for the French crown. And because of that, the masses probably hoped for a miracle or two to occur. Young Jeanne's confidence, just like Bridget's, probably grew from all the attention she got. And like Bridget, the story had a sad ending: Jeanne's life ended when she was burned at the stake at the age of 19, that is, still being a child (from a neuropsychological perspective, the brain and the mind reach full maturation somewhere between 25-30 years of age). Even so, the war which she set out to stop raged on for another 22 years.


In the 1700s, Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772), a Swedish theologian and founder of the New Church, followed the trend claiming he also had experienced revelations, a deeper understanding about how people should prepare for the second coming of Jesus:
Drawing on the passage in Genesis (1:29-31) in which God Institute a vegan diet, Swedenborg said that meat-eating corresponds to the fall from grace in the Garden of Eden and was, therefore, the point of entry of sin and suffering into the world” (Phelps, p. 149).
In 1817 the Swedenborgian Church of North America was established, "and 1845, when the movement toward Swedenborg was in full tide, George Bush, professor of Hebrew and Oriental Literature in the University of the City of New York and long a favorite oracle of the orthodox church, was converted and took the lead of it" (John Humphrey Noyes (1811-1886), Letters: 1867).

In parallel, Temperance societies emerged inspired by John Edgar, professor of theology, and Presbyterian Church of Ireland minister. Sylvester Graham (Graham Crackers; 1794-1851) joined the Temperance movement in 1830 for a few months but then left to focus on promoting a plant-based 'Garden-of-Eden' diet. In 1850 Graham, together with Alcott, William Metcalfe (1788-1862), and Russell Trall, founded the American Vegetarian Society.
”The meeting was called by William Metcalfe who had led a migration of 40 members of the Bible Christian Church from England to Philadelphia in 1817, all abstainers from flesh foods. By 1830 Sylvester Graham (picture right) and William Alcott MD were also following the meatless diet. Metcalfe soon heard about the formation of the Vegetarian Society in Britain in 1847, and about the new word 'Vegetarian' now being used. He contacted Graham and Alcott and arranged the New York gathering” (IVU).
In 1830, William Millet (1782-1849) is said to have started an Adventist movement with a similar ambition, that is, also projecting the second coming of Jesus. And Millet had a date: October 22, 1844. The failure of the prophecy led to the Great Disappointment and the formation of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church (SDAC). Millet's goal-statement was reframed to a starting point. A key component in that process was 'cleansing' before the heavenly sanctuary/investigative judgment. SDAC was formally established in 1863, following the religious zeitgeist to promote a Garden-Eden, plant-based, diet in preparation for the second coming of Jesus.

One of the prominent members of SDAC, Ellen G. White (1827-1915), argued that meat, milk, and butter were responsible for 'carnal urges' - impure thoughts in men. Another early member, John Harvey Kellogg (1852-1943), developed breakfast cereals as a 'healthy food' (Figure 3). This eventually led to the founding of Kellogg's by his brother William (Wikipedia).

Figure 3. Seventh-Day Adventist church transformed into Loma Linda promoting a 'balanced diet'.
The current ad dates 1969.

During the 1950s, a housewife named Dorothy Martin (1900–1992), also had a revelation - a message from planet Clarion claiming there will be a flood. Only those who believe will be saved (compare to acting swiftly). Mrs. Martin had previously been involved in the Dianetics movement, which later became Scientology.

Mrs. Martin's revelation in the 1950s became one of the most renowned studies of mental dissociation (Festinger, Riecken, and Schacter's (1956/2008) When Prophecy Fails. On page three they wrote:
A man with a conviction is hard man to change. Tell him you disagree and he turns away. Show him facts and figures and he questions your sources. Appeal to logic and he fails to see your point.
Once people have become convinced, they tend to stay in that conviction (hard to change). They also tend to have little room for viewpoint diversity (questions your sources) and metacognitive sensitivity (Appeal to logic and he fails to see your point). Festinger et al. concluded that five conditions must be present for beliefs to persist:
  • A belief must be held with deep conviction and it must have some relevance to action, that is, to what the believer does or how he or she behaves.
  • The person holding the belief must have committed himself to it; that is, for the sake of his belief, he must have taken some important action that is difficult to undo. In general, the more important such actions are, and the more difficult they are to undo, the greater is the individual's commitment to the belief.
  • The belief must be sufficiently specific and sufficiently concerned with the real world so that events may unequivocally refute the belief.
  • Such undeniable disconfirmatory evidence must occur and must be recognized by the individual holding the belief.
  • The individual believer must have social support. It is unlikely that one isolated believer could withstand the kind of disconfirming evidence that has been specified. If, however, the believer is a member of a group of convinced persons who can support one another, the belief may be maintained and the believers may attempt to proselytize or persuade nonmembers that the belief is correct (Wikipedia).
In the 1970s, Amos Tversky (1937-1996) and Daniel Kahneman published several articles on various psychological fallacies, that is, humans' inborn inability to think rationally in decision making. One of these studies was about availability heuristics - a mental shortcut that relies on immediate examples that come to a given person's mind when evaluating a specific topic, concept, method, or decision (Tversky & Kahneman, 1973Wikipedia). We rely on the information we get, and if the message is repeated, our belief in it gets stronger.

In 1993, Keith Stanovich presented the concept of Dysrationalia  - the inability to think and behave rationally despite adequate intelligence (Wikipedia). The opposite of Dysrationalia is Disjunctive reasoning - reasoning that considers all possibilities (Stanovich, 2015).

The same year saw the birth of the term Confirmation bias - the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or hypotheses (Plous, 1993; Wikipedia). The opposite of Confirmation bias is Exploratory thinking, which is similar to Disjunctive reasoning.

Last year, Harvard professor Steven Pinker wrote:
Cognitive psychologists have shown that people are poor at assessing probabilities, especially small ones, and instead play out scenarios in their mind's eye. If two scenarios are equally imaginable, they may be considered equally probable, and people will worry about the genuine hazard no more than about the science-fiction plot line. And the more ways people can imagine bad things happening, the higher their estimate that something bad will happen. That takes us back to subjective readouts, which tend to be inflated by the Availability and Negativity biases and by the market among social commentators for gravitas: Those who sow fear about a dreadful prophecy may be seen as serious and responsible, while those who are measured are seen as complacent and naive (Pinker (2018). The dangers of worrying about doomsday.
So the more often the unlikely proposition is made, the more likely people will believe it's true, like when 270 individuals signed a paper they probably did not co-write.

School Strike for Climate is a concept based on a paradox claiming that if schoolchildren give up 20% of their education, their knowledge will increase. And in order for the message to influence many people emotionally, history demonstrates the effect of using an image-person.

A famous image-person is the Marlboro man, the front figure in an ad that ran for an astonishing 45 years (1954-1999). Over the years, there have been several people depicting the Marlboro man. Originally, it was not to promote people to inhale the poisonous fumes from tobacco but to promote the message that not only women should use filtered cigarettes.

Figure 4. The Marlboro man, depicted in an outdoor environment

The Marlboro brand  was promoted from a lifestyle perspective (Figure 4), using the slogan:
Come to where the flavor is, come to Marlboro country
After a while, when the cowboy image had reached some tipping point, it could be used in a variety of ways; sometimes just the silhouette of a man in an outdoor environment. Intentional or not, the ads had a great influence on young people (Arnetta and Terhanianb, 1998) - a group whose social and emotional adjustment, as well as cognitive development, is vulnerable to social influence (Gopnik, 2016Rosenberg, 2013Österberg, 2004). And there is a reason for that: young people's mind is still forming to provide implicit guidelines for their adult life. Get them hooked at an early age, and there's a great probability you can influence them for the rest of their life. As a marketer, you would target young people.

Smoking is addictive; one's you start, it's hard to quit. The explanation lies in the chemical formula of the product, which has an immense influence on the dopamine communication between parts of the brain called the Ventral tegmental area (VTA) and Nucleus accumbens (NA). Simply speaking, this is a communication that fires up for any kind of substance you don't need - nicotine, sugar, and so forth, and even just when seeing items connected to smoking for example (David et al. 2005).

In Sweden, a retail food business - ICA - has for years, if not decades, used a figure by the name of Stig in their advertising. 'ICA-Stig' is a grumpy small-business owner who runs one of many ICA-stores. He has a staff, and besides showing some food offers, the storytelling in the commercial is about the relation between Stig and those people. The crowd, all the people watching the commercial, connect to the message. This is probably one explanation why ICA, with annual revenues (2012) equivalent of 10 billion Dollars, is dominating the Swedish food market. The rationale seems to be, no reference given though, that people, in general, are more easily persuaded if a figurine is standing behind the message.

However, as with tobacco, the food business is under fire because they fill the shelves with processed food:
“Those of us who have participated in science know that 9 of every 10 experiments are failures. Now imagine that the last 50 years has been a grand clinical research experiment, with the American population as unwitting participants, conducted by 10 principal investigators—Coca-Cola, Pepsico, Kraft, Unilever, General Mills, Nestlé, Mars, Kellogg, Proctor & Gamble, and Johnson & Johnson. In 1965, these corporations posed the hypothesis that processed food is better than real food. To determine if the experiment was a success or a failure, we have to examine the outcome variables. In this case, there are 4: food consumption, health/disease, environment, and cash flow, divided into companies, consumers, and society.” (Lustig, R: (2017). Processed Food—An Experiment That Failed).
The master-mind behind the Marlboro man was Leo Burnett (1891-1971) who, beside the Marlboro man, created some of advertising's most well-known characters (in the USA): Tony the Tiger, Charlie the Tuna, Maytag Repairman, "Fly the Friendly Skies". Burnett was also the person who established a relationship between McDonald's and Coca-Cola. In 1999, Time Magazine crowned Burnett to be one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century.

Rebecca Weidmo Uvell, an independent media contributor and analyst, notices that the School strike for Climate had its own Leo Burnett: Ingmar Rentzhog. In 2017, Mr. Rentzhog was the managing director of Laika - a communications company, claiming to successfully have helped other companies fund money. Rentzhog is ... a money-maker, a capitalist. Now, Rentzhog runs a Company called We don't have time. (Ingemar Rentzhog is also chairman of the Thinktank Global Challenge, sponsored  by billionaire (in Swedish currency) Social democrat Kristina Persson.)
As of December 2018, the board consisted of Annette Susanna Bergkvist Nordvall, Stella Maria Diesen, Tor Christian Emmertz, Ingmar Rentzhog (also, the company's executive manager), Sven David Olsson, and Gustav Folke Hugo Stenbeck.
Det vi vill med WeDontHaveTime är att åstadkomma för klimatet vad hashtagen #MeToo gjort för jämställdheten och vad jämförelsesajten TripAdvisor.com gjort för resebranschen, säger Rentzhog.
– TripAdvisor.com har i dag 390 miljoner användare och ett börsvärde på över 40 miljarder kronor med god lönsamhet.
What we want with WeDontHaveTime is to achieve for the climate what the hashtag #MeToo has done for equality and what the website TripAdvisor.com has done for the travel industry, says Rentzhog. - TripAdvisor.com currently has 390 million users and a market value of over $ 40 billion with good profitability (Farhad, A. (2017). Börshajen).
The Me too started in 2006 by Tarana Burke, a civil/social rights activist. It was a campaign "to promote "empowerment through empathy" among women of color who have experienced sexual abuse, particularly within underprivileged communities". The hashtag, #Metoo, went viral in October 2017 as actress Alyssa Milano started to promote it on interactive media platforms (MeToo movement). This was what Retnzhog wanted, and with 15 years of executing communications advice for companies, he seems to be the man for the job. Another of Rentzhog's ambition was, and probably still is, to keep 90 % of the revenues from We Don't Have Time. Isn't that a bit paradoxical for a person who is on a mission to fight ... capitalism? In the spirit of Leo Burnett, Rentzhog was probably eager to find the equivalent of Tony the tiger or ICA-Stig, a person who could evoke empathy among the crowd.

CoincidentallySara Magdalena "Malena" Ernman, a Swedish opera singer, was working on a book called Scenes from a heart (Scener ur ett hjärta). But before that, Ms. Ernman made two interviews where she went public about her relational issues with her husband Mr. Thunberg ("Det har varit ett helvetiskt år" (2015); Malena Ernman om svåra familjekrisen: "Vi mådde piss" (2018)).
In the animal kingdom, evolution has adjusted men and women for natural and sexual selection. For example, when lionesses want to breed, they trade food for sex. This is also true for chimpanzees.
According to Ms. Ernman's testimony, after turning thirty, she says she sensed her biological clock was ticking. But according to Ms. Ernman's testimony, she did not trade any food with Mr. Thunberg. Instead, she claims she just handed him her phone number. And after three months of performing natural reward-oriented activities with Mr. Thunberg, Ms. Ernman reported she found herself in what religious people would call a state of blessing. Ms. Ernman also reports frequent domestic conflicts between Mr. Thunberg and herself (Malena Ernman: "Jag fick min diagnos som vuxen"). 

Notes

Memory is constructive (Schacter & Addis, 2007Shaw, 2016) and when telling stories about ourselves we use something called personal semantic knowledge (Szpunar et al. 2014). 

Research about domestic violence shows that relational aggressiveness is more prevalent among women (~30 %;) compared to men (~1%) (Crick & Grotpeter, 1995). Being relational aggressive means lacking impulse-control, meaning being unable to stay in frustration. This is explained by a combination of biological and social factors.

When criticized, Ms. Ernman use of mix polemics and defensive argumentation (Rebecca Weidbo Uvell:  Malena Ernman missuppfattar). This may correlate with increased release of cortisol before, during, and close after pregnancy, and transfer various temperaments (personality traits) to the offsprings (see list of references in Appendix 3). In 2015, Ms. Ernman claimed that one of Mr. Thunberg and her daughters had Asperger [syndrome]: 
(1) a developmental disorder characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. As a milder autism spectrum disorder (ASD), it differs from other ASDs by relatively normal language and intelligence (Wikipedia). 
(2) A disorder of uncertain nosological validity, characterized by the same type of qualitative abnormalities of reciprocal social interaction that typify autism, together with a restricted, stereotyped, repetitive repertoire of interests and activities. It differs from autism primarily in the fact that there is no general delay or retardation in language or in cognitive development. This disorder is often associated with marked clumsiness. There is a strong tendency for the abnormalities to persist into adolescence and adult life. Psychotic episodes occasionally occur in early adult life (ICD-10: version 2016). 
Difficulties in social interaction mean having a hard time doing public presentations. Difficulties with non-verbal communication mean something is wrong with an inborn capacity to read general facial expressions such as anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, and happiness (Darwin, 1872; Österberg, 2001). According to Ms. Ernman, the diagnose originated from her side of the family. That suggests biology, but the daughters' diagnosis coincided with a theater-project that was set up by Ms. Ernman and her husband.

The interview interlude a description of the family's summerhouse in the archipelago of Stockholm, an outlet for Mr. Thunbergs 'architectural dreams', as Ms. Ernman put it. There are two reflections to be made here. First, why does Ms. Ernman talk about Mr. Thunberg as if he was a child? Second, why architecture and not the more likely carpenter? Do we spot von Oben's attitudes here?

According to Ms. Ernman, the daughters' diagnosis became the reason for the couple's' inter-personal differences'. And in the midst of all this, Ms. Ernman had the challenging task of ... going to work. She over-emphasizes the details of her job as if it was something really special. But doing what you trained for, is not challenging unless you dislike doing it or have a tendency for neuroticism. The result: the audience had to wait 15 full minutes. Ms. Ernman then continues saying that she has no work-limit, but that taking care of her sick daughters is 'something different'.

The couple, or just Ms. Ernman, wasn't satisfied with the diagnose (Asperger syndrome that was claimed to run in her family). They/she searched for answers outside the family and suspected that something was wrong at school. The rationale for that assumption was because the daughter, like her mother, was so shy. Really?

According to Ms. Ernman's first testimony, schools pay more attention to social ability than factual knowledge. The whole interview seems to be about Ms. Ernman in the role of the performing artist. And suddenly, the daughters have recovered [from a neuro-psychiatric disease!?] and life was back to normal.

In the second interview, Ms. Ernman reveals that her daughters have recovered and that social skills are now what matters. That happened to coincide with the daughter made a speech in front of 10 000 people:
We are talking about our family's crisis from a larger context, she says.
Ms. Erman reveals that also the younger daughter was diagnosed, but with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and low and behold, that also originates from Ms. Ernman's family.

In Sweden and the US, ADHD is considered a Neuro-Psychiatric Disorder, whereas in France it's considered an emotional disorder (Why French Kids Don't Have ADHD). Its neuroscience versus psychology (Hint: look at Österberg, 2004. In Swedish though but loads of ANOVA and ANCOVA-tables).
I shouldn't have written a book about how my family's emotional state for a long period of time, but I had to. Because we felt sick. I felt sick, Svante fel sick. The kids felt sick. The planet felt sick. Even the dog felt sick. (Jag borde inte ha skrivit en bok om hur min familj har mått i långa perioder under de senaste åren. Men jag måste. För vi mådde piss. Jag mådde piss. Svante mådde piss. Barnen mådde piss. Planeten mådde piss. Till och med hunden mådde piss.).
During the three years between the interviews, the explanatory model expanded, from the school environment to the global environment, and the couple took the opportunity to launch a book about it (see above). According to Ms. Ernman, it's a kind of autobiography but still not.

What does that mean?

Ms. Ernman has been ambitious in exposing her family in the media, even though she in 2015 reported her daughters to have social issues. And as she emphasizes:
they are not a traditional boring family.
What's wrong with being traditional?

All of this is said to have been presented in the book - Scenes from a heart. The sales promotion reads:
This story is about me, my family, and the crisis that hit us. However, it is above all a story about the crisis that surrounds us all. Perhaps it is about burnt-out people on a burned-out planet where weather, wind and everyday life are increasing in strength every day. Keeping together as people and finding sustainability is the heart of this book./Malena Ernman (Den här historien handlar om mig och min familj och den kris som drabbade oss. Men det är framförallt en berättelse om krisen som omger oss alla. Kanske handlar den om utbrända människor på en utbränd planet där väder, vind och vardag ökar i styrka för varje dag. Att hålla ihop som människor och att hitta hållbarhet, det är hjärtat i denna bok.
The book's abstract is vague, meaning you can make any interpretation you want. Even so, the impression is that Ms. Ernman has the ambition to communicate some facts. Such books, often used within the academic community, contain references. So the key here is to look for references. Result: "zilch".

Another clue is the title - Scenes from a heart (Scener ur ett hjärta). In general, a title should be consistent with the content. And from a semantic point of view, the title used is very similar to Scenes from a Marriage, a famous play by Swedish writer and director Ingmar Bergman (2018-2007).
It's not that Bergman was the first film artist to confront serious themes. It's that he worked in a symbolic and an emotional language that was serious and accessible. He was young, he was setting an incredible pace, but he was looking at memory, old age, the reality of death, the reality of cruelty, and it was so vivid. So dramatic. Bergman's connection with the audience was somewhat like Hitchcock's – direct, immediate (Martin Scorsese about Bergman). 
Bergman's own autobiography is a story too detailed to be true; at old age, he claims to remember things that happen at age 8 - 9. That is unlikely. The reason is that autobiographical memory starts to form around 6 years of age, and the whole memory system is constructive (remember Schacter & Addis, 2007 above; Shaw, 2016).
Memory is not about the formation of associations; memory conveys information forward in time, for computational use in the indefinite future (Gallistel, 2017).
Ergo: The function of the mind is not memory but prospection - elaborating on scenarios about the future (Gilbert & Wilson, 2007).

Bergman seems to have had a fixation about his upbringing, and his father, on who he attributes a lot of negative things (traditional for kids with dysfunctional upbringing).

But it's just another unlikely memory construction. Serving as a royal chaplain to the court of King Gustav V of Sweden, Erik Bergman (1886-1970), relied on the mother - Karin Bergman - to raise the kids, that is, the most common family construction since the start of human lineage some 6 million years ago. But as the story goes, Karin Bergman had mental issues, which suggest she transferred her personal problems onto her children (which is also typical). Mental issues are seldom about neuro-psychiatric stuff, most often about emotional ditto. And women worry more about the future, score higher on neuroticism in Big 5 compared to men, and are significantly more relational aggressive compared to men (Crick & Grotpeter, 1995; Maestripieri, 2012; Weisberg, DeYoung and Hirsh, 2011).

Scenes from a Marriage, which was launched in 1973, is a really dark story dramatizing 10 years of Ingmar Bergman's dysfunctional marriage with actress Liv Ullman. It had a sequel - Saraband (2003).  Did Ms. Ernman copy that theme?
"Thank you for your help, strength and inspiration" (Tack för hjälp, ork och inspiration).
At the end of Scenes from a Heart, there's a list of people to whom Ms. Ernman sends her regards:
  • People working with children who have special needs like eating disorders (This indicates family issues).
  • One of these people is the controversial comedian Özz Nujen, who, even though he makes good money from his shows, chose to pay Rakmat Akilov 8500 Euros without reporting it to the tax authorities. Akilov is known for deliberately driving a truck into crowds along Drottninggatan (Queen Street), killing five people and injuring another 14. The motive was religious (Wikipedia). Mr.Nujen was confronted by Swedish investigative journalist Janne Josefsson about not reporting to the tax authorities, but for some reason, Nujen refused to answer any question. Instead, Mr. Nujen brought his own crew!? and acted in a very aggressive manner towards Mr. Josefsson. Afterward, he published his version on youtube (Janne Josefsson: ”Han framställer mig som en creepy gubbe”). Mr. Nujen later had second thoughts about his aggressive outbursts, suggesting a remake of the interview, but Mr. Josefsson declined ( Özz Nûjens vändning om Janne Josefsson: ”Han försökte bara göra sitt jobb”).
  • Animals rights activists, the fringe, that is, the 1 % of people who gather to go against things that have to do with food, ecology, and climate.
  • Pär Holmgren, the weather presenter turned climate pundit, who, during the Swedish election 2018, supported Marxism-Leninist Gudrun Schyman throughout her campaign. In early 2019 Mr. Holmgren became a candidate for the European parliament, representing the Swedish Green party (Miljöpartiet). During that process, it turned out that he on several occasions had demoted democracy (Varför så tyst, Bah Kuhnke?).Mr. Holmgren has authored Det minsta vi kan göra är så mycket som möjligt (The least we can do is as much as possible), which may be the 'scripture' the child recites during her appearances? A few years ago, Mr. Holmgren contacted me to improve his knowledge about what he called 'Climate psychology'. It was a rather confusing e-mail conversation (Thursday, May 10, 2018, "Perception versus facts". Climate Psychology and Progressofobics (also in Swedish).
So in August of 2018, during the infamous Swedish election, Ingmar Rentzhogs image-person/child prophet (and Pär Holmgrens disciple?) showed up at Mynttorget, close to the Swedish parliament, introducing the concept: School strike for Climate. The support came mainly from the leaders of the extreme left - Jonas Sjöstedt, and Pär Holmgren (Mp). The latter who earlier had demoted democracy and tried to learn more about 'climate psychology'. Consistent with Mr. Rentzhog's plan, the initiative has led to a crowd-movement on a global scale, attracting young people in more than 100 countries. A marketers dream!

Like Bridget och Jeanne after their revelations (illusions/delusions), Ms. Ernmans 16 years old daughter's confidence has probably sky-rocketed after all attention. And suddenly she was no longer a child but a woman!? (Expressen. Editor in chief: Thomas Mattsson). This was true during medieval Europe, and reports from 'other parts of the world' show young girls being forced to marry full-grown men (Sommarlovet är den stora skräckens tid). 

Conclusions
  • Being absent from school 20 % of the time will unlikely improve academic learning. Rather the opposite.
  • Climate change is not about one but about many changes over a long period of time. The geological record points to the Cambrian explosion 541 Mya for a reasonable starting point. Thus, the prospect is not short-term but long-term.
  • The climate is not a one-factor but a multi-factor phenomenon.
  • Our ancestors started to consume animal-sourced food some 4-3.5 Mya, and with climate change (between Pliocene - Pleistocene) that diet became the staple to sustain physical and mental health.
  • Animal-sourced food boosted the growth of our ancestors' brains, allowing various kinds of prospective abilities to emerge: prediction, intention, simulation, and planning. These abilities manifest in creativity/entrepreneurial cognition. This probably also started the process of developing verbal language.
  • Abstaining from real food in favor of vegetarian or vegan alternatives is associated with having issues with life satisfaction (general wellbeing). People who conform to the vegan, or even a vegetarian diet, score high on neuroticism (Forestell & Nezlek, 2018), seek a social identity (Planet et al. 2019), and report lower satisfaction with life compared to omnivores (Nezlek, Forestell & Newman, 2018). The vegan alternative is considered deficient in nutrients and dangerous to kids. In Australia, a baby girl was fed a vegan diet. When authorities found her, at age 19 months, her development was at a level of a 3-month infant (BBC). And recently a baby boy died of veganism (Metro, 2019). Medical doctors in Belgium advise against veganism (Parents who raise children as vegans should be prosecuted, say Belgian doctors).
  • Because of our abnormal big brains, modern humans have similar dietary needs as our ancestors (Adesogan et al 2019Leroy & Confas, 2019Österberg, 2019 (blogpost). Here's a list of some of the nutrients we need to consume on a regular basis: 13 vitamins (e.g. A, several B:s, C, some D, E, K2-Mk4, and Mk7), 15-16 minerals (Heme-Iron, Magnesium, Zinc and so forth), CholineDocosahexaenoicArachidonic. Adding to that: tryptophan for mental harmony (happiness; Lustig, 2017).
  • The sea level rose ~100 meters between 14 700 - 7600 years ago. This is explained by several meltwater pulses (Cronin, 2012). And ~13 000 years ago, a meteor and fragment thereof hit the Earth (Voosen, 2018). 
  • There's a possibility that these events established flash-bulb memories that was kept alive via a verbal tradition, meaning the story was transferred over generations by storytelling.
  • A lot of interesting things happen before the Dryas periods, the invention of bread and beer (see this post for a comprehensive description of the evolution of food).
  • A lot of interesting things continue to happen after the Dryas periods. The most prominent would be the construction of Gobekli Tepe
  • After another climate change (Pleistocene - Holocene)  the newly established creative mind created, maybe facilitated by the consumption of bread and beer, myths. One prominent myth was the Epic of Gilgamesh which not only is the foundation for all monotheistic myths, but also the mother of warnings of the doom by sea-level rise.  
  • The idea of trying to control people by warning them with a prospect of doom goes thousands of years back in time. But in order to work, the message has to be out of the ordinary (see Festinger et al. 1956/2008 above; Konnikova, 2016).
  • Remember, since the start of the current era, there had been ~200 doomsayers promising the ending of the world, often via a flood. For example, Since 1967, there have been eleven doom prophecies, warnings about the rise of sea-levels. Together, they have one thing in common: they have all been wrong. In fact, there hasn't been any significant sea-level rise since the Younger Dryas.
  • The concept of child prophecy is not new. Princess of Nericia (1303-1373), Jeanne  Domrémy-la-Pucelle (1412-1431), and the vegan proponent Ellen G. White (1827-1915) are among three to precede the current one. 
  • The big question then is why 270 self-appointed 'climate researchers' support this movement? One answer is Dysationalia - the inability to think and behave rationally despite adequate intelligence and/or Confirmation bias - the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms or strengthens one's prior personal beliefs or hypotheses, which is similar to groupthink (see SOU 2015:52 for an orientation).
  • Finally. Remember, "Communication is a powerful but dangerous tool. While it allows humans to acquire an unprecedented amount of information, it can also lead to lies, manipulation, and deceit" (Sperber et a.2010).
Epilog. On 18 August 1418, that is, parallel to Jeanne's quest, a competition to erect the dome for the Cathedral of Florence, constructed by a man named Fioravante, was assigned. The winner was a local goldsmith Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446).

A modern understanding of physical laws and the mathematical tools for calculating stresses were centuries in the future. Brunelleschi, like all cathedral builders, had to rely on intuition and whatever he could learn from the large-scale models he built. To lift 37,000 tons of material, including over 4 million bricks, he invented hoisting machines for lifting large stones.

Fioravante's & Brunelleschi's accomplishment was the medieval 'rocket science' that is said to have started the renaissance - a period in European history covering the span between the 14th - 17th centuries and marking the transition from European Middle or Dark ages, where ideas of revelations were exchanged with the thinking postulated by Thales some 2000 years back in time (thus the renaissance, or rebirth).

The renaissance turned into the age of Enlightenment (1717-1789), the speed of academic progress increased due to the propagation of reasoning, science, and humanism (Pinker, 2018), which demonstrated an impact (like an afterburner) on later thinkers: Elizabeth Ricord (1788-1865), Charles Darwin (1809-1882), Alexander Bain (1818-1903), Alfred R. Wallas (1823-1913), William James (1842-1910), and Marie Curie (1867-1934) to mention a few.

Still, some setbacks occurred. In October 1917, eight-month after the Russian revolution when the tsar agreed to abdicate, a small group calling themselves Bolsheviks overthrew the recently formed Russian parliament (Duma) by a coup d'état. The leader - Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (1870-1924), nicknamed Lenin, applied the ideas about class-war and proletarian dictatorship - that workers should seize power over companies by violence - formulated in Marx & Engels (1848) Communist Manifesto, which later influenced Fascism and Nazism. The result was the worst ever autocracy during the common era. During Lenin's seven-year reign, the country fell apart in a civil war with millions of dead people, some via concentration camps (GULAG). Lenin himself crisscrossed the country in a Rolls Royce (No 85) (see Figure 5).

Figure 5. Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin) war-car, a Rolls Royce (production No 85).

The horror of the communist Soviet Union (1917-1991)  was forced onto several countries: the Baltic states, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, North-Korea, Poland, Vietnam, and so forth. Marxism also influenced feminism, claiming that women are oppressed through systems of capitalism and private property. Really?

The Marxist autocracy also managed to create the worst ever environmental catastrophe - the eradication of the Aral lake and its surrounding ecology (68 000 square kilometers). Currently, China is the leader when it comes to climate harmful emissions with an annual release of 9.3 billion tons of C02 (Finlands små klimatutsläpp lämnar stort avtryck för att vi är så få, in Swedish). In comparison, Sweden's contribution to climate emissions is 0.1 %. And while western countries thrive in recycling, 90 % of plastics in the oceans originate from ten rivers in Asia (World Economic Forum: 90% of plastic polluting our oceans comes from just 10 rivers). 

11 June 1989, just two years before the collapse of the Soviet Union (1917-1991), the leader for the Swedish Communist Party - Gudrun Schyman - stated to TT - a Swedish news outlet:
- Communism has not entered into a decisive crisis. Rather, it is the opposite when looking at developments in Eastern Europe. The force that develops there is hopeful [sic].(- Kommunismen har inte gått in i en avgörande kris. Det är snarare tvärtom när man ser på utvecklingen i Östeuropa. Den kraft som utvecklas där är hoppingivande [sic]).
Even so, Schyman stayed on the post until 2003. During her reign the communist party sort of traded pure Marxism for sub-Marxist ideas like feminism, which promote, above all, the idea of equality of outcome, as opposed to equality of opportunity. Schyman was succeeded by Lars Ohly, and later Jonas Sjöstedt. During the 2018 election, Schyman was supported by weather forecaster Pär Holmgren, who is mentioned as an advisor to Ms. Ernman in her book Scenes from a heart.
Why bother to learn anything in school if politicians won’t pay attention to the facts
And in Sweden, Isabella Lövin (Mp), in her role as vice-Prime minister representing ~3 % of the Swedish population, used the child-prophet as a reference in the National statement by Isabella Lövin, Minister for International Development Cooperation and Climate and Deputy Prime Minister, at COP24. This is probably the same way high medieval priests and kings used Princess of Nericia (1303-1373) and Jeanne  Domrémy-la-Pucelle (1412-1431) claimed revelations for their own purposes. 

Epistemic vigilance:
Federico Germani analyses the child's speech to conclude she's following a 'Dark green movement'.

Kathrine Jebsen Moore (2019) When Children Protest, Adults Should Tell them the Truth.

Appendix 1

Here will appear some media links:

2019:

Today, April 8,2019, a new follower showed up on my Twitter account:



September 23, Greta Thunberg condemns world leaders in emotional speech at UN
September 23, When Greta Thunberg saw President Trump
September 29 Billionaire French luxury brand boss accuses teen climate activist Greta Thunberg of 'catastrophism'
September 30, Church of Sweden proclaimed Greta Thunberg 'successor' to Jesus Christ
September 30, Jeremy Clarkson says teen climate activist Greta Thunberg a 'spoilt brat' who makes him 'sick'
September 30, L’imposture Greta Thunberg ou l'écologisme apocalyptique et anti-national
October 2, Greta Thunberg doesn't understand complexities of ‘modern world,’ says Putin
October 3, Hypocrisy of Greta Thunberg and those profligate Millennials who blame ‘baby boomers’ for climate change – Yorkshire Post Letters
October 4, Greta Thunberg is no genius – she’s an apostle
October 5, DOUGLAS MURRAY: Why do we listen to a bunch of anarchists who can't even work a fire hose?
October 5, Why Greta Thunberg changed her Twitter bio in response to Trump and Putin
October 22, Swedish activist Greta Thunberg coming to Vancouver for climate strike
October 22, HBL (Finnish news outlet) reveals that the lobbying giant European Climate Foundation is one of the huge organizations supporting the Child prophet. Finlandssvenska Daniel Donner ingår i teamet bakom ... European Climate Foundation seems to have some connection with Proveg International.
November 14, Greta Thunberg sets sail for Madrid climate conference with a family of YouTubers
November 23, Greta Thunberg to guest edit Radio 4's Today programme
December 15, Greta Thunberg apologises for 'put leaders against the wall' comment
December 30, Greta Thunberg's father Svante reveals he thought the 16-year-old's eco-crusade was a 'bad idea' - but believes it has actually saved her from a pit of depression he feared would KILL her

August, 4 and 5, saw the return of this (last seen April 2019, see above):



2021

Appendix 2

  1. Erik Ahlberg, doktor, aerosolvetenskap, Lunds universitet
  2. Josefin Ahlkrona, biträdande lektor, numeriska metoder för klimatmodeller, Stockholms universitet
  3. Roland Akselsson, professor emeritus, människa-teknik organisation, risk, Lunds universitet
  4. Cecilia Akselsson, docent, uthålligt skogsbruk i förändrat klimat, Lunds universitet
  5. Kevin Anderson, professor, energi och klimat, Uppsala universitet
  6. August Andersson, forskare, aerosoler, Stockholms universitet
  7. Camilla Andersson, docent, regionalskalig luftmiljö och dess effekter, SMHI
  8. Karin Andersson, professor, maritim miljövetenskap, Chalmers tekniska högskola
  9. Yvonne Andersson-Sköld, professor, miljöanalys, klimat, transporter, Chalmers tekniska högskola
  10. Elinor Andrén, docent, paleoekologi, Södertörns högskola
  11. Louise C Andresen, doktor, ekosystemvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet
  12. Jonas Ardö, professor, naturgeografi, Lunds universitet
  13. David Armstrong McKay, doktor, klimat-biosfäråterkopplingar, Stockholm resilience centre, Stockholms Universitet
  14. Göran Arnqvist, professor, zooekologi, Uppsala universitet
  15. Åsa Arrhenius, doktor, ekotoxikologi och riskbedömning, Göteborgs universitet
  16. Thomas Backhaus, professor, toxikologi och hållbarhet, Göteborgs universitet
  17. Susann Baez Ullberg, biträdande lektor, vattenpolitik, katastrofhantering, Uppsala universitet
  18. Sanna Barrineau, projektkoordinator, lärande för hållbar utveckling, Uppsala universitet
  19. David Bastviken, professor, miljövetenskap, Linköpings universitet
  20. Frida Bender, docent, klimatmodellering, Stockholms universitet
  21. Jan Bengtsson, professor, ekologisk miljövård, SLU
  22. Johan Bergh, professor, skogsbruk och klimatförändringar, Linnéuniversitetet
  23. Robert G Björk, docent, klimateffekter i Arktis, Göteborgs universitet
  24. Lovisa Björnsson, professor, miljö- och energisystem, Lunds universitet
  25. Thorsten Blenckner, docent, ekosystem dynamik, klimat, marina system, Stockholm resilience centre
  26. Johan Boman, professor, atmosfärsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet
  27. Wijnand Boonstra, docent, sociologi, Stockholm resilience centre
  28. Sara Borgström, PhD, Biträdande lektor, hållbar stadsutveckling, KTH
  29. Magnus Boström, professor, miljösociologi, Örebro universitet
  30. Emily Boyd, professor, klimatanpassning, Lunds universitet
  31. Karin Bradley, lektor, samhällsplanering och miljö, KTH
  32. Mark Brady, docent, miljöekonomi, SLU
  33. Sara Brogaard, doktor lektor, markanvändning ur ett klimatperspektiv, Lunds universitet
  34. Selma Brynolf, doktor, sjöfartens miljöpåverkan, alternativa bränslen, energisystem, Chalmers tekniska högskola
  35. Christer Brönmark, professor, akvatisk ekologi, Lunds universitet
  36. Lowe Börjeson, docent, kulturgeografi, Stockholms universitet
  37. Per Carlsson, docent, marinekologi invasiva arter, Lunds Universitet
  38. Annika Carlsson Kanyama, docent, klimatanpassning, konsumtionens klimatpåverkan, KTH
  39. Wim Carton, doktor, klimatpolitik, Lunds universitet
  40. Deliang Chen, August Röhss professur, klimatförändringar, Göteborgs universitet
  41. Johan Colding, docent, hållbar stadsutveckling, högskolan i Gävle
  42. Jessica Coria, docent, miljöekonomi, Göteborgs universitet
  43. Sarah Cornell, doktor, globala biogeokemiska cykler, Stockholm resilience centre
  44. Teresa C-Pargman, docent, Människa-datorinteraktion och hållbarhet, Stockholms universitet
  45. Anne-Sophie Crépin, docent, resursekonomi och hållbarhet, Beijerinstitutet för ekologisk ekonomi
  46. Beatrice Crona, docent, vd, hållbarhetsvetenskap, Kungl vetenskapsakademien
  47. Martin Dahl, doktor, kollagring i kustekosystem, Stockholms universitet
  48. Leif Dahlberg, professor, klimatkommunikation, KTH
  49. Thomas Dahlgren, doktor, marinbiologi, Göteborgs universitet
  50. Ingela Dahllöf, professor, miljövetenskap, Göteborgs universitet
  51. Jan Darpö, professor, miljörätt, energirätt, Uppsala universitet
  52. Maricela de la Torre-Castro, docent, kustförvaltning och klimat, Stockholms universitet
  53. Gia Destouni, professor, klimat och vattenresurser, Stockholms universitet
  54. Abhay Devasthale, doktor, klimatändring i Arktis, SMHI
  55. Ellen Dorrepaal, docent, Arktisk ekologi-klimat-koppling, Abisko, Umeå universitet
  56. Ralf Döscher, doktor, chef Rossby Centre, klimatmodellering, SMHI
  57. Robert Ekblom, docent, biologisk mångfald, genetik, Uppsala universitet
  58. Elisabeth Ekener, doktor, global hållbarhet, Agenda 2030, KTH
  59. Peter Eklöv, professor, akvatisk ekosystemforskning, Uppsala universitet
  60. Annica Ekman, professor, kemisk meteorologi, Stockholms universitet
  61. Salomon Eliasson, doktor, satellitfjärranalys klimat, SMHI
  62. Lars Emmelin, professor emeritus, UNESCO-ordförande i hållbarhet, Blekinge tekniska högskola
  63. Göran Englund, professor, klimateffekter i akvatiska ekosystem, Umeå universitet
  64. Alexis Engström, Studierektor centrum för miljö- och utvecklingsstudier, Uppsala universitet
  65. Elina Eriksson, biträdande Lektor, människa-datorinteraktion och hållbarhet, KTH
  66. Martin Eriksson, doktor, miljövetenskap och hållbar utveckling, Chalmers tekniska högskola
  67. Patrick Eriksson, professor, global miljömätteknik, Chalmers tekniska högskola
  68. Eléonore Fauré, forskare, strategiska hållbarhetsstudier, KTH
  69. Ingo Fetzer, doktor, geosystem och klimatforskning, Stockholm resilience centre
  70. Helena Filipsson, professor, maringeologi, klimat, marina miljöer, Lunds universitet
  71. Göran Finnveden, professor, miljöstrategisk analys, KTH
  72. Klara Fischer, docent, lokala försörjningseffekter av kolskogsprojekt, SLU
  73. Göran Frank, doktor, aerosol, moln och klimat, Lunds universitet
  74. Johan Friberg, Doktor i fysik, atmosfärsfysik, Lunds universitet
  75. Marie-José Gaillard, professor, paleoekologi-klimatologi, Linnéuniversitet
  76. Victor Galaz, docent i statsvetenskap, miljö- och klimatpolitik, Stockholms universitet
  77. Julian Gallego Urrea, doktor, marinkemi - akvatisk kemi, Göteborgs universitet
  78. Lars Gamfeldt, docent, hot mot den biologiska mångfalden, Göteborgs universitet
  79. Lena Gipperth, professor, miljörätt, Göteborgs universitet
  80. Paul Glantz, docent, atmosfärsvetenskap, aerosolers påverkan på klimatet, Stockholms universitet
  81. Line Gordon, docent, föreståndare, vattenresurser och klimat, livsmedel och biosfärens resiliens, Stockholm resilience centre
  82. Bengt Gunnarsson, professor, urban ekologi, Göteborgs universitet
  83. Karin Gustafsson, docent, miljösociologi, fokus på FNs klimatpanel, Örebro universitet
  84. Richard Gyllencreutz, doktor, maringeologi, Stockholms universitet
  85. Ulf Gärdenfors, professor emeritus, biologisk mångfald och klimat, SLU
  86. Annemieke Gärdenäs, lektor, koppling klimat-markanvändning, Göteborgs universitet
  87. Pernilla Hagbert, doktor, hållbar samhällsbyggnad, KTH
  88. Thomas Hahn, docent, ekologisk ekonomi, Stockholms universitet
  89. Mattias Hallquist, professor, atmosfärsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet
  90. Dan Hammarlund, professor, kvartärgeologi och paleoklimatologi, Lunds universitet
  91. Lars-Anders Hansson, professor, klimateffekter i vattenekosystem, Lunds universitet
  92. Margareta Hansson, professor, miljövetenskap, Stockholms universitet
  93. Julia Hansson, doktor, hållbara förnybara drivmedel, Chalmers tekniska högskola
  94. Sophie Haslett, doktor, atmosfärsvetenskap, Stockholms universitet
  95. Niles Hasselquist, lektor, extremvädereffekter på biogeokemiska cykler, SLU
  96. Jonathan Havenhand, professor, havsförsurning och marint klimat, Göteborgs Universitet
  97. Martin Hedberg, fil kand, expert inom meteorologi, Swedish weather and climate centre
  98. Björn Hedin, doktor, hållbar människa-datorinteraktion, KTH
  99. Johan Hedrén, universitetslektor, miljö, Linköpings universitet
  100. Malin Henriksson, senior forskare, hållbara transporter, Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
  101. Greger Henriksson, docent, strategiska hållbarhetsstudier, KTH
  102. Céline Heuzé, doktor, klimat, Göteborgs universitet
  103. Stig-Olof Holm, lektor, ekologi, Umeå universitet
  104. Sara Holmgren, Forskare, miljökommunikation, SLU
  105. Jutta Holst, doktor, växelverkan mellan atmosfär och ekosystem (växthusgasutbyte), Lunds universitet
  106. Gustaf Hugelius, lektor, klimatet och Arktis kolcykel, Stockholms universitet
  107. Kristoffer Hylander, professor, Klimat och biologisk mångfald, Stockholms universitet
  108. Maria Håkansson, universitetslektor, urbana och regionala studier, KTH
  109. Olle Häggström, professor, riskforskning och matematisk statistik, Chalmers tekniska högskola
  110. Mattias Höjer, professor, miljö och framtidsstudier, KTH
  111. Karolina Isaksson, docent, transportpolitik och -planering, KTH
  112. Christina Isaxon, doktor, luftföroreningar, klimat, hälsa, Lunds universitet
  113. Johan Jansson, docent, ekonomi, hållbar konsumtion, Lunds universitet
  114. Mikael Johannesson, doktor, klimat miljöanalys transporter, 
  115. Kerstin Johannesson, professor, klimateffekter på marin biodiversitet, Göteborgs universitet
  116. Maria Johansson, doktor, brandekologi, klimatkompensation, Stockholms universitet
  117. Margareta Johansson, doktor, klimatförändringar i Arktis, Lunds universitet
  118. Christer Johansson, professor, atmosfärvetenskap, Stockholms universitet
  119. Daniel Johansson, docent, integrerade energi-, ekonomi- och klimatanalyser, Chalmers tekniska högskola
  120. Thomas B Johansson, professor, energi, hållbar utveckling, Lunds Universitet
  121. Mark Johnson, doktor, glaciärer, glacialprocesser, Göteborgs universitet
  122. Karin Jonsell, kommunikatör, Bolincentret för klimatforskning
  123. Per Jonsson, professor, marin ekologi, Göteborgs universitet
  124. Somya Joshi, doktor, styrning och hållbarhet, Stockholm environment institute
  125. Svenne Junker, doktor, hållbara marknader, Handelshögskolan i Stockholm
  126. Michael Kahnert, adjungerad professor, effekt av aerosoler på klimatet, SMHI/Chalmers tekniska högskola
  127. Arne Kaijser, professor emeritus, teknikhistoria, KTH
  128. Ola Kalén, doktor, oceancirkulation Västantarktis, SMHI
  129. Paul Kardol, doktor, effekter av klimatförändringar på ekosystemfunktion, SLU
  130. Torbjörn Karlin, superintendent Tarfala forskningsstation, paleoklimat, glaciärdynamik, glaciärhydrologi, Stockholms universitet
  131. Oskar Karlsson, docent, miljöepigenetik och toxikologi, Stockholms universitet
  132. Jan Karlsson, professor, klimateffekter på arktiska ekosystem, Umeå universitet
  133. Åsa Kasimir, docent, växthusgaser från marken, Göteborgs universitet
  134. Cecilia Katzeff, docent, människa-datorinteraktion, hållbar konsumtion, KTH
  135. Tord Kjellström, professor, klimateffekter på arbetsmiljöhälsa, Lunds universitet
  136. Erik Kjellström, professor, klimatologi, SMHI
  137. Richard Klein, professor, klimatanpassning, Stockholm environment institute
  138. Till Koglin, biträdande universitetslektor, trafikplanering och mobilitet, Lunds universitet
  139. Torsten Krause, doktor, hållbarhetsvetenskap, Lunds Universitet
  140. Adam Kristensson, doktor, luftburna partiklar, Lunds universitet
  141. Emma Kritzberg, lektor, kolcykeln i akvatiska system, Lunds Universitet
  142. Tim Kruschke, doktor, klimatforskning, SMHI
  143. Johan Kuylenstierna, adjungerad professor, klimatpolitik, Stockholms universitet
  144. Malin Kylander, docent, paleoklimat och extremväder, Stockholms universitet
  145. Henrik Kylin, professor, miljökemi/miljötoxikologi polarforskning, Linköpings universitet
  146. Björn Källström, doktor, marinbiolog, Göteborgs marinbiologiska laboratorium
  147. Torben Königk, doktor, klimatvariabilitet, SMHI
  148. Staffan Laestadius, professor emeritus, industriell och ekonomisk omställning, KTH
  149. Jessica Lagerstedt Wadin, docent, innovation för hållbar utveckling, Lunds universitet
  150. Joakim Langner, docent, meteorologi, SMHI
  151. Jörgen Larsson, forskare, flygets klimatpåverkan, Chalmers tekniska högskola
  152. Hjalmar Laudon, professor, hydrologi och vattenkvalitet, SLU
  153. Aliaksei Laureshyn, docent, hållbara urbana transporter, Lunds universitet
  154. Lin Lerpold, docent, hållbar utveckling, Handelshögskolan i Stockholm
  155. Isabelle Letellier, doktor, barn och ungdomsvetenskap, Stockholms universitet
  156. Rolf Lidskog, professor, klimatpolitik, Örebro universitet
  157. Hans Linderholm, professor, klimatförändringar, Göteborgs universitet
  158. Lars Lindström, forskare, anpassning till klimatförändringarna, Stockholms universitet
  159. Björn-Ola Linnér, professor, klimatpolitik, Linköpings universitet
  160. Marta Lomas Vega, forskare, klimateffekter på Svenska fågelpopulationer, Stockholms universitet
  161. Birgitta Losman, rektors samordnare för hållbar utveckling, högskolan Borås
  162. Karin Lundgren Kownacki, doktor, klimatförändringar och hälsa, Termisk miljö, Lunds Universitet
  163. Erik Löfmarck, lektor, miljösociologi, Örebro universitet
  164. Jakob Löndahl, docent, luftburna partiklar, aerosoler, Lunds universitet
  165. Eva Lövbrand, docent, klimatpolitik, Linköpings universitet
  166. Aaron Maltais, doktor, föreståndare, klimaträttvisa och politik, Stockholm environment institute
  167. Marcel Mangold, doktor, statsvetenskap, Örebro universitet
  168. George Marbuah, doktor, hållbar finansiering för hållbarhets- och klimatmål, Stockholm environment institute
  169. Jens Marquardt, doktor, klimatpolitik, Stockholm University
  170. Kristina Marquardt, forskare, småbrukares markanvändning, SLU
  171. Helena Martins, doktor, klimatvetenskap kommunikatör, SMHI
  172. Johan Martinsson, doktor, skogsbränder, Lunds universitet
  173. Lars-Gunnar Mattsson, professor emeritus, hållbara marknader, Handelshögskolan i Stockholm
  174. Ayşem Mert, doktor, samhällsvetenskaplig miljöforskning, demokrati i antropocen, Stockholms universitet
  175. Grzegorz Mikusinski, docent, biologisk mångfald, skogsbränder, SLU
  176. Rebecka Milestad, docent, hållbara livsmedelssystem, KTH
  177. Paul Miller, doktor, ekosystem- och klimatmodellering, Lunds universitet
  178. Fredrik Moberg, doktor, korallrevsekologi, Stockholm resilience centre
  179. Malin Mobjörk, programchef, doktor, klimat, fred och säkerhet, fredsforskningsinstitutet sipri
  180. Jon Moen, professor, ekologi, Umeå universitet
  181. Claudia Mohr, Assistant professor, atmosfäriska aerosoler, Stockholms universitet
  182. Monica Mårtensson, doktor, aerosoler och klimat, havs-luft-utbyte, Uppsala universitet
  183. Kimberly Nicholas, Universitetslektor, klimat, hållbarhetsvetenskap, Lunds universitet
  184. Tobias Nielsen, doktor, FN:s klimatförhandlingar, Lunds universitet
  185. Susa Niiranen, doktor, klimat påverkan i marina ekosystem, Stockholm resilience centre
  186. Alexandra Nikoleris, doktor, visioners roll i klimatomställningen, Lunds universitet
  187. Christer Nilsson, professor emeritus, landskapsekologi, Umeå universitet och SLU
  188. Douglas Nilsson, docent, aerosolkällors klimateffekter, Stockholms universitet
  189. Kevin Noone, professor, atmosfärsvetenskap, Stockholms universitet
  190. Julia Nordblad, biträdande universitetslektor, miljöhistoria, Uppsala universitet
  191. Anders Nordström, senior universitetslektor, dricksvattenförsörjning i Sverige, Stockholms universitet
  192. Bo Norrman, doktor, Innovationsutveckling hållbarhet, Chalmers tekniska högskola
  193. Albert Norström, forskare, hållbar utveckling, Stockholms universitet
  194. Maria Ojala, docent, psykologi, fokus klimat och unga, Örebro universitet
  195. Malin Olofsson, doktor, marinbiolog med fokus på växtplankton i en föränderlig värld, SMHI
  196. Johan Olofsson, docent, arktisk vegetationsekologi, Umeå Universitet
  197. Christina Olsen Lundh, doktor, miljörätt, Göteborgs universitet
  198. Per Olsson, forskare, hållbar utveckling, Stockholm resilience centre
  199. Lennart Olsson, professor, klimat och fattigdom, deltar i IPCC, Lunds universitet
  200. Madelene Ostwald, docent, markanvändning och klimat, Chalmers tekniska högskola
  201. Joakim Pagels, docent, aerosolteknik - partiklar, hälsa och klimat, Lunds universitet
  202. Brian Palmer, Universitetslektor, civilkurage och engagemang, Uppsala universitet
  203. Daniel Pargman, lektor, medieteknik, KTH
  204. Frans-Jan Parmentier, doktor, den arktiska kolcykeln, Lunds universitet
  205. Henrik Pavia, professor, effekter av klimatförändringar på marina ekosystem, Göteborgs universitet
  206. Martin Persson, docent, tropisk avskogning, klimat, styrmedel, Chalmers tekniska högskola
  207. Åsa Persson, forskningschef, klimatpolitik, Stockholm environment institute
  208. Andreas Persson, docent, översvämningsrisker, Lunds universitet
  209. Garry Peterson, professor, hållbarhetsforskning, Stockholm resilience centre
  210. Jan Pettersson, professor, hållbar utveckling, Chalmers tekniska högskola och Göteborgs universitet
  211. Håkan Pleijel, professor, miljövetenskap, Göteborgs universitet
  212. Honor C Prentice, professor emerita, biodiversitet/gräsmarker/torka, Lunds universitet
  213. John Prytherch, doktor, polarmeteorologi, Stockholms universitet
  214. Cibele Queiroz, forskare, resiliens av matproduktionssystem, Stockholm resilience centre, Stockholms universitet
  215. Karin Rengefors, professor, sötvattensekologi, algblomningar, Lunds universitet
  216. Johan Rockström, professor, chef Potsdam institute for climate impact research, miljövetenskap, Stockholm resilience centre
  217. Henning Rodhe, Professor emeritus, kemisk meteorologi, Stockholms universitet
  218. Pontus Roldin doktor, atmosfärsmodellering, Lunds universitet
  219. Gunhild Ninis Rosqvist, professor, effekter av klimatförändringar på natur och samhälle i norra Sverige, Stockholms universitet
  220. Itzel Ruvalcaba Baroni, doktor, växthusgasutsläpp från arktiska sjöar, Stockholms universitet
  221. Elin Röös, biträdande universitetslektor, livsmedelsproduktionens miljö- och klimatpåverkan, SLU
  222. Matthew Salter, doktor, atmosfärsvetenskap, Stockholms universitet
  223. Lisen Schultz, doktor, naturresursförvaltning, Stockholms universitet
  224. David Simpson, professor, modellering, troposfärisk luftförorening, Chalmers tekniska högskola
  225. Per Sjögren-Gulve, docent, biologisk mångfald, naturvårdsbiologi, Uppsala universitet
  226. Daniel Slunge, doktor, miljöekonomi, Göteborgs universitet
  227. Henrik Smith, professor, biologisk mångfald och klimat, Lunds universitet
  228. Rienk Smittenberg, doktor, geokemi och paleoklimatologi, Stockholms universitet
  229. Pauline Snoeijs Leijonmalm, professor, polarforskning, Stockholms universitet
  230. Sebastian Sobek, docent, klimateffekter på sjöars ekosystem, Uppsala universitet
  231. Moa Sporre, doktor, atmosfärsforskning, Lunds universitet
  232. Frances Sprei, docent, hållbar mobilitet, Chalmers tekniska högskola
  233. Jan Stenlid, professor, skogspatologi, SLU
  234. Isak Stoddard, projektledare, klimatledarskap, Uppsala universitet
  235. Sofie Storbjörk, docent, klimatanpassning, Linköpings universitet
  236. Christophe Sturm, doktor, klimatstatistik, SMHI
  237. Brita Sundelin, docent, effekter av kontaminanter och klimat, Stockholms universitet
  238. Maja Sundqvist, doktor, klimatförändringars effekter på tundran, Umeå universitet
  239. Maria Svane, doktor, kemi kring aerosoler och klimatpåverkan, Chalmers tekniska högskola
  240. Örjan Svane, professor emeritus, hållbar stadsutveckling, KTH
  241. Åsa Svenfelt, docent, hållbar konsumtion, KTH
  242. Birgitta Svenningsson, docent, aerosoler och klimat, Lunds universitet
  243. Erik Svensson, professor, evolutionär ekologi, Lunds universitet
  244. Erik Swietlicki, professor, aerosoler och klimat, Lunds universitet
  245. Lennart Söder, professor, elkraftsystem förnybar energi, KTH
  246. Peter Søgaard Jørgensen, forskare, hållbarhetsforskning, Stockholm resilience centre
  247. Sverker Sörlin, professor, klimatets miljö- och vetenskapshistoria, KTH
  248. Patrik Sörqvist, professor, miljöpsykologi, högskolan i Gävle
  249. Maria Tengö, forskare, hållbarhet, klimatförändringar, Stockholm resilience centre
  250. Manu Anna Thomas, doktor, aerosol-moln-strålningsinteraktioner, SMHI
  251. Erik Thomson, lektor, luft och klimat, Göteborgs universitet
  252. Josefin Thorslund, doktor, salthaltsdriven vattenbrist under ett förändrat klimat, Stockholms Universitet
  253. Lars Tranvik, professor, klimateffekter på sjöar och vatten, Uppsala Universitet
  254. Max Troell, forskare, global hållbarhet, sjömat, klimatet, Beijerinstitutet, Kungl vetenskapsakademien, Stockholms universitet
  255. Kajsa Tönnesson, doktor, föreståndare, marinekologi, polarforskning, Göteborgs universitet
  256. Johan Uddling, professor, klimatpåverkan på växter, Göteborgs universitet
  257. Göran Wallin, lektor, miljövetenskap, Göteborgs universitet
  258. David van der Spoel, professor, fysikalisk kemi inkl. atmosfärkemi, Uppsala universitet
  259. Josefin Wangel, docent, hållbar stadsutveckling, SLU
  260. Erik Westholm, professor emeritus, samhällsvetenskaplig miljöforskning, SLU
  261. Victoria Wibeck, professor, klimatkommunikation, Linköpings universitet 
  262. Johan Wikner, docent, klimat-driven syrebrist, Umeå universitet
  263. Fredrik Wikström, docent, miljö- och energisystem, Karlstads universitet
  264. Renate Wilcke, doktor, klimatforskning, analys av klimatmodeller, SMHI
  265. Helén Williams, docent, miljö- och energisystem, Karlstads universitet
  266. Stefan Wirsenius, docent, klimatpåverkan från jordbruk, Chalmers tekniska högskola
  267. Maria Wolrath Söderberg, doktor, klimatretorik, Södertörns högskola
  268. Nina Wormbs, docent, teknik- och vetenskapshistoria, KTH
  269. Paul Zieger, docent, partiklar, moln, klimat, Stockholms universitet
  270. Conny Östman, professor, analytisk kemi, Stockholms universitet

Appendix 3:

Labad, Javier; Vilella, Elisabet; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Sans, Teresa; Cavallé, Pere; Valero, Joaquín; Alonso, Pino; Menchón, José Manuel; Labad, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso. (2011). Increased morning adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) levels in women with postpartum thoughts of harming the infant. Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol 36(6), 924-928.

Introduction: Some postpartum women experience intrusive thoughts of harming the infant. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which has been linked to postpartum depression, may play a role in the aetiology of postpartum thoughts of harming the infant. We aimed to study whether HPA axis hormones measured early postpartum are related to postpartum intrusive thoughts. Method: 132 women who delivered a child at a university hospital participated in a follow-up study with visits at 2-3 days postpartum and 8th week postpartum. Participants were assessed for trait anxiety, social support, peripartum or postpartum anxiety or depression, stressful life events and obstetric variables including perinatal complications and lactation. Postpartum thoughts of harming the infant were assessed with a semi-structured interview. Serum cortisol, and plasma CRH and ACTH levels were measured within 48 h postpartum at 8-9 AM. A logistic regression was performed to explore the relationship between clinical variables, hormonal measures and postpartum intrusive thoughts. Results: Patients with postpartum thoughts of harming the infant had, when compared to those women without intrusive thoughts, higher ACTH levels (7.59 pmol/L vs 5.09 pmol/L, p < 0.05) without significant differences in CRH or cortisol levels. In the logistic regression analysis, adjusted for breast-feeding and psychopathological status, only ln ACTH was associated with the presence of postpartum thoughts of harming the infant (OR = 5.2, CI 95% 1.2-22.6, p = 0.029). No other clinical variables were associated with postpartum intrusive thoughts. Conclusions: Our study suggests that a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may play a role in the aetiology of postpartum thoughts of harming the infant.

Handlin, Linda; Jonas, Wibke; Petersson, Maria; Ejdebäck, Mikael; Ransjö-Arvidson, Anna-Berit; Nissen, Eva; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin. (2009). Effects of sucking and skin-to-skin contact on maternal ACTH and cortisol levels during the second day postpartum—Influence of epidural analgesia and oxytocin in the perinatal period. Breastfeeding Medicine, Vol 4(4), 207-220.


Background and Aims: In this study we made a detailed analysis of the mothers' release pattern of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol during a breastfeeding session during the second day postpartum and related these patterns to maternal oxytocin levels as well to the duration of sucking and the duration of skin-to-skin contact before sucking the breast. Furthermore, we investigated if epidural analgesia and oxytocin administration during and after labor influenced the release pattern of ACTH and cortisol. Methods: Sixty-three primiparae were included in the study. Fourteen received oxytocin intramuscularly postpartum, nine received oxytocin infusion, 14 received epidural analgesia combined with oxytocin infusion, and six received epidural analgesia alone. Twenty mothers did not receive any of these medical interventions. Blood samples were analyzed for ACTH and cortisol by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results: Both ACTH and cortisol levels fell significantly during the breastfeeding session. A significant negative relationship was found between oxytocin and ACTH levels, but not between oxytocin and cortisol levels. A positive and significant relationship was found between ACTH and cortisol levels. The duration of skin-to-skin contact before onset of sucking was significantly and negatively associated with lower cortisol levels, but not with ACTH levels. Cortisol levels differed significantly between mothers having received epidural analgesia with and without oxytocin. Conclusions: Breastfeeding is associated with a decrease of ACTH and cortisol levels. Skin-to-skin contact contributes to this effect. ACTH correlated negatively with the duration of sucking and with median oxytocin levels, whereas cortisol levels correlated inversely with the duration of skin-to-skin contact preceding sucking, suggesting a partial dissociation between the mechanisms regulating ACTH and cortisol release. In addition, medical interventions in connection with birth influence the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis 2 days after birth.


Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Hellhammer, D. H.; Wüst, Stefan. (2009). Why do we respond so differently? Reviewing determinants of human salivary cortisol responses to challenge. Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol 34(1), 2-18.


Stress and stress-related health impairments are major problems in human life and elucidating the biological pathways linking stress and disease is of substantial importance. However, the identification of mechanisms underlying a dysregulation of major components of the stress response system is, particularly in humans, a very challenging task. Salivary cortisol responses to diverse acute challenge paradigms show large intra- and interindividual variability. In order to uncover mechanisms mediating stress-related disorders and to potentially develop new therapeutic strategies, an extensive phenotyping of HPA axis stress responses is essential. Such a research agenda depends on substantial knowledge of moderating and intervening variables that affect cortisol responses to different stressors and stimuli. The aim of this report is, therefore, to provide a comprehensive summary of important determinants of, in particular, human salivary cortisol responses to different kinds of laboratory stimuli including acute psychosocial stress as well as pharmacological provocation procedures. This overview demonstrates the role of age and gender, endogenous and exogenous sex steroid levels, pregnancy, lactation and breast-feeding, smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption as well as dietary energy supply in salivary cortisol responses to acute stress. Furthermore, it briefly summarizes current knowledge of the role of genetic factors and methodological issues in terms of habituation to repeated psychosocial stress exposures and time of testing as well as psychological factors, that have been shown to be associated with salivary cortisol responses like early life experiences, social factors, psychological interventions, personality as well as acute subjective-psychological stress responses and finally states of chronic stress and psychopathology.


Nishitani, Shota; Miyamura, Tsunetake; Tagawa, Masato; Sumi, Muneichiro; Takase, Ryuta; Doi, Hirokazu; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Kazuyuki. (2009). The calming effect of a maternal breast milk odor on the human newborn infant. Neuroscience Research, Vol 63(1), 66-71.


We examined the effects of the odors from mother's milk, other mother's milk and formula milk on pain responses in newborns undergoing routine heelsticks. Forty-eight healthy infants were assigned to four groups, an own mother's breast milk odor group (Own MM), another mother's breast milk odor group (Other MM), a formula milk odor group (Formula M) and a control group. To assess infant distress in response to the heelsticks, their crying, grimacing and motor activities were recorded during the experiment as behavioral indices of the pain response. After the heelstick, the behavioral indices of the Own MM group were lower than those of other groups. By contrast, the Other MM and Formula M groups showed no significant changes compared with the Control group. We also measured salivary cortisol concentration as a biochemical index in Control and Own MM infants before and after heelstick. After the heelstick, the level of salivary cortisol was significantly increased in Control infants, but not in Own MM infants. These results suggest that pain is relieved in human newborns when they are exposed to odors from their mother's milk.


Oberlander, Tim F.; Grunau, Ruth; Mayes, Linda; Riggs, Wayne; Rurak, Dan; Papsdorf, Michael; Misri, Shaila; Weinberg, Joanne. (2008). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in 3-month old infants with prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant exposure. Early Human Development, Vol 84(10), 689-697.


Background: Prenatal exposure to stress and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) alter hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) stress reactivity in offspring, however, the effects of combined exposure to HPA activity in human infants is unknown. Objective: To examine HPA basal levels and stress responsiveness in 3-month olds with prenatal exposure to SSRIs. Methods: Salivary cortisol levels in infants of SSRI treated mothers ( n = 31, mean exposure 230.2 ± 72.2 days) were compared with non-SSRI exposed ( n = 45) infants in response to a challenge (infant-controlled habituation task) and under basal conditions in the late afternoon/early evening. Mode of feeding, to account for possible postnatal drug exposure via breast milk, as well as measures of pre and postnatal maternal mood, were included as covariates. Results: Lower post-stress cortisol levels were observed in non-SSRI exposed/non-breastfed infants compared with non-SSRI exposed infants who were breastfed at 3 months of age. Stress reactivity patterns among SSRI exposed infants did not differ with mode of feeding. The cortisol reactivity slope (CRS) was significantly lower among non-SSRI exposed non-breastfed infants compared with non-SSRI exposed breastfed infants. Early evening basal cortisol levels were lower in SSRI exposed infants than in non-SSRI exposed infants, controlling for maternal mood and mode of feeding. Postnatal SSRI exposure (infant SSRI drug levels) via breast milk was not associated with stress or basal cortisol levels. Total cortisol, reflected by the AUC measure, did not differ significantly between exposure groups. Conclusions: Prenatal SSRI exposure altered HPA stress response patterns and reduced early evening basal cortisol levels. Stress challenge HPA response differences only became apparent when the moderating effect of method of feeding was accounted for. These findings suggest an early “programming” effect of antenatal maternal mood, prenatal SSRI exposure and postnatal maternal care giving on the HPA system.


Stenius, Fredrik; Theorell, Tores; Lilja, Gunnar; Scheynius, Annika; Alm, Johan; Lindblad, Frank. (2008). Comparisons between salivary cortisol levels in six-months-olds and their parents. Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol 33(3), 352-359.


Background: There is a close relation between the psychosocial environment of the infant--including the perception of maternal behaviour--and cortisol levels of the infant. One previous study has also demonstrated a correlation between mother and infant mean cortisol levels. In this study, this relation was further explored, also including father cortisol levels. Methods: Saliva cortisol samples were collected from 51 six-months-olds and their parents on the same day in the morning, afternoon and evening. Analyses were performed with a radioimmunoassay technique. All mothers were at home with their child at this age and 47/51 mothers were breast feeding. Results: Strong correlations were found between mother and child levels on all sampling occasions whereas weaker correlations were found between father and child levels and only in the afternoon and the evening samples. There was also a strong relation between waking up/bedtime-difference in mother and child and a weaker relation between the corresponding measure in father and child. Conclusions: The stronger mother-infant than father-infant cortisol level correlations probably mirror that mother and infant not only have genetic similarities but also have been exposed to similar environmental conditions to a higher degree than father and infant.


Glynn, Laura M.; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sandman, Curt A. (2007). Postnatal maternal cortisol levels predict temperament in healthy breastfed infants. Early Human Development, Vol 83(10), 675-681.


Background: The implications of the biologically active elements in breast milk for the breastfed infant are largely unknown. Animal models suggest that ingestion of glucocorticoids during the neonatal period influences fear behavior and modifies brain development. Aims: To determine the association between postnatal maternal cortisol levels and temperament in breastfed infants. Study Design: The relation between maternal cortisol and infant temperament was examined in breastfed and formula-fed infants. Plasma cortisol was used as a surrogate measure for breast milk cortisol levels (plasma and milk levels are correlated in the 0.6 to 0.7 range; [Patacchioli FR, Cigliana G, Cilumbriello A, Perrone G, Capri O, Alemà GS, et al. Maternal plasma and milk free cortisol during the first 3 days of breast-feeding following spontaneous delivery or elective cesarean section. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigations 1992;34:159-163.]. If exposure to elevated cortisol levels during infancy influences temperament, then a relation between the two should be found among the breastfed infants, but not among the formula-fed infants. Subjects: Two hundred fifty-three two-month-old infants and their mothers. Outcome Measures: Fearful temperament assessed with the Infant Behavior Questionnaire [Garstein MR, Rothbart MK. Studying infant temperament via the revised infant behavior questionnaire. Infant Behavior and Development 2003;26:64-86]. Results: Among the breastfed infants, higher maternal cortisol levels were associated with reports of increased infant fear behavior (partial r = 0.2; p < 0.01). This relation did not exist among the formula-fed infants. Negative maternal affect at the time of assessment did not account for the positive association in the breastfed group. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with our proposal that exposure to cortisol in breast milk influences infant temperament. Biologically active components in breast milk may represent one avenue through which the mother shapes the development of the human infant during the postnatal period.


Mezzacappa, E. Sibolboro; Endicott, J. (2007). Parity mediates the association between infant feeding method and maternal depressive symptoms in the postpartum. Archives of Women's Mental Health, Vol 10(6), 259-266.


Maternal depression is the most common complication of the postpartum, having devastating and long lasting effects on mother and infant. Lactation is associated with attenuated stress responses, especially that of cortisol, and the lactogenic hormones, oxytocin and prolactin, are associated with anti-depressant and anxiolytic effects. These associations suggest that breast-feeding may decrease maternal depressive symptoms, yet empirical results have been conflicting. Recent findings have indicated that parity may mediate the association between breast-feeding and stress response. Because a decreased stress response is associated with a decreased risk for depression, parity may also mediate the association between infant feeding method and depressive symptoms. Specifically, the benefits of breast-feeding may appear in multiparous but not primiparous mothers. In the present study, data drawn from a national sample of primiparous and multiparous mothers were examined for possible associations between infant feeding method and depressive symptoms, as assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Survey-Depression scale (CES-D). After controlling for several possible confounding variables, breast-feeding by multiparas was associated with significantly decreased odds of having depression compared with bottle-feeders (OR = 0.41, CI 0.19-0.87, p = 0.02); however, no risk reduction from breast-feeding was evident among primiparas. The results support a parity-mediated association between lactation and maternal depressive symptoms. The results provide a reason for earlier conflicting findings, present new research avenues, and suggest possible clinical approaches.


Tu, Mai Thanh. (2007). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in postpartum mothers: The role of infant feeding type, parity, salience of stressor and sociodemographic factors. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 68(3-B), 1473.


Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responsiveness to stress is generally blunted in lactating rats, except during situations of pup endangerment, suggesting an important role of salience of stressor in stress response during lactation. Conversely, in women, breastfeeding is associated with reduced HPA responses to physical stress and perceived stress. Yet, HPA responses to a standardized speech and arithmetic task (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) are not blunted in breastfeeding mothers. Interestingly, greater number of children (parity) increases maternal experience which can enhance responsiveness to child-related stressors. To our knowledge, no study to date has investigated the impact of infant feeding type and parity on basal and reactive HPA secretion in human mothers using an emotional stressor evoking threat to a child. Furthermore, no study has investigated the effect of return of ovarian activity, sleep disturbances, education and income even though these variables are function of infant feeding type. Therefore, in STUDY (1) we assessed the impact of infant feeding type (breast vs. bottle) and parity (primiparous, first-time mother vs. multiparous, second-time mother) on diurnal cortisol secretion. Then, in STUDY (2) we verified whether infant feeding upon waking up would affect awakening cortisol response (ACR), an endogenous stimulation of HPA axis. Finally, in STUDY (3) we investigated the impact of infant feeding type, parity and salience of stressor on salivary cortisol and (sympathetic) alpha-amylase responses to laboratory-induced (exogenous) stressors that were either related or unrelated to child well-being (a home-made emotional film evoking lost and hurt children or the TSST). Breastfeeding mothers presented lower estradiol concentrations, more frequent nocturnal sleep interruptions and higher education and income. We found that greater basal cortisol secretion in multiparous bottlefeeding compared to multiparous breastfeeding mothers at awakening and 4PM, when simultaneous child and infant cares are the most prominent. No impact of breastfeeding was found on ACR. Finally, among multiparous mothers, following both the TSST and the emotional film, cortisol responsiveness in bottlefeeding was greater than in breastfeeding mothers. Alpha-amylase responses were similar across groups. Interestingly, income played a role in the stability of diurnal cycle, and possibly of ACR across days, but not on laboratory-induced stress responses. No effect of other secondary variables was detected. In conclusion, in this dissertation, we show for the first time that during child-related stress, multiparity accentuates the reduction in basal and reactive HPA activity associated with breastfeeding. Furthermore, the evidence of potential association between high socioeconomic indices and healthier HPA function represent a new avenue for implementing support programs for mothers during the highly emotional and stressful period following childbirth.


Tu, Mai Thanh; Lupien, Sonia J.; Walker, Claire-Dominique. (2006). Diurnal salivary cortisol levels in postpartum mothers as a function of infant feeding choice and parity. Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol 31(7), 812-824.


Daily stress and sleep deprivation can influence the diurnal pattern of cortisol, which normally consists of high morning levels and a gradual decline throughout the day. While most individuals have consistent declining cortisol concentrations over days, others display either flat or inconsistent profiles. Postpartum mothers experience considerable home demands and sleep deprivation, yet, breastfeeding mothers perceive lower stress and reduced negative mood states compared to bottlefeeders. On the other hand, multiparity (having more than one child) is associated with reduced steepness in diurnal cortisol decline. Interestingly, no study to date has investigated the diurnal cortisol pattern and its stability across days in postpartum women as a function of their choice of infant feeding and parity. In this study, we measured salivary cortisol at four different time points during the day, on two non-consecutive days in first-time (primiparous) and second-time (multiparous) mothers at 5-20 weeks postpartum who were exclusively breastfeeding or bottlefeeding, and in non-postpartum mothers of young children (1-6 years). Among multiparous mothers, we found that cortisol levels in those who were bottlefeeding were higher than in breastfeeding mothers at both awakening and 1600h. This effect remained significant after controlling for individual differences related to infant feeding choice, such as estradiol levels, education and income. No effect of infant feeding choice on cortisol concentrations was observed in primiparous mothers. While a consistent decline across days was common, some mothers presented a flat or inconsistent profile, a profile that was not associated with infant feeding choice or parity. Importantly, mothers with consistent declining profiles had the highest household income. Our findings suggest that although breastfeeding might promote a tighter regulation of diurnal basal cortisol secretion, in particular for multiparous mothers who are likely to be exposed to greater home demands and maternal responsibilities, some aspects of socioeconomic status such as income can also play a significant role in the stability of diurnal cortisol secretion across days.


Tu, M. T.; Lupien, S. J.; Walker, C.-D. (2006). Multiparity reveals the blunting effect of breastfeeding on physiological reactivity to psychological stress. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, Vol 18(7), 494-503.


Rat studies show that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responsiveness to physical and emotional stressors is attenuated during lactation, although situations evoking pup endangerment can supersede this phenomenon. In the human population, blunted cortisol responses are seen in primiparous breastfeeding compared to bottlefeeding mothers following physical stress, but not after psychosocial stress. It is currently unknown whether stressor salience (child-related versus nonrelated stressor) has a differential effect on cortisol reactivity as a function of infant feeding choice and whether HPA responses to stress could be modified by parity. We investigated the impact of infant feeding type and maternal parity on salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase response to stress in 5-20-week postpartum mothers using exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and to an emotional film evoking threats to a child. Analyses show that alpha-amylase responses were similar in all groups and for both types of stress, suggesting that sympathetic reactivity was independent of infant feeding type and parity. By contrast, cortisol response was affected by these variables. In primiparous mothers, cortisol reactivity to psychological stressors did not vary as a function of infant feeding type while, among multiparous mothers, breastfeeding was associated with reduced responsiveness to the TSST and child-related stressor. We speculate that changes in neural mechanisms occurring as a result of pregnancy and lactation and that modulate the HPA axis in women might be exacerbated with multiple repeats of the pregnancy/lactation period. This would serve to 'desensitise' stress circuits and reduce the overall stress-induced cortisol secretion after multiple births.


Krpan, Katherine M.; Coombs, Rosemarie; Zinga, Dawn; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S. (2005). Experiential and hormonal correlates of maternal behavior in teen and adult mothers. Hormones and Behavior, Vol 47(1), 112-122.


This study explores the role of cortisol and early life experiences in the regulation of maternal behavior and mood in teen and adult mothers. Primiparous mothers (n = 119) (teen mothers < 19 years, n = 42), young mothers (19-25 years, n = 34), and mature mothers, (>25 years, n = 43) were assessed for their maternal behavior, mood, and hormonal profile at approximately 6 weeks postpartum. Outcome measures were analyzed as a function of age and early life experience. Results showed an interaction between age and type of maternal behavior, where teen mothers engaged in more instrumental (e.g. changing diapers, adjusting clothes) less affectionate (e.g., stroking, kissing, patting) behavior, and mature mothers engaged in more affectionate and less instrumental behavior. When groups were reassessed based on early life experience (consistency of care during the first 12 years of life: consistent care; having at least one consistent caregiver, inconsistent care; having multiple and changing caregivers), an interaction was also found between consistency of care and type of behavior shown, where mothers who received inconsistent care engaged in more instrumental and less affectionate behavior. Compared to mature mothers, teen mothers who were breast feeding also had higher salivary cortisol levels, and high cortisol in teen mothers related to decreased fatigue and increased energy. These results suggest that early life experiences are linked to mothering behavior and are consistent with the emerging human and animal literature on intergenerational effects of mothering style.


Minkkinen, Molly Harney. 2005). Does the concentration of cortisol in mother's breast milk have a relationship with the behavior of the infant. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 65(8-A), 2892.


The purpose of this study was to determine whether the concentration of cortisol in maternal breast milk had an impact on infant behavior beyond the influence of the mother's stress related behaviors. Nineteen mother infant breast feeding pairs were recruited to participate in this study from two Midwestern states. Maternal stress levels, cortisol production in breast milk, maternal socio-economic levels, and infant behavior were assessed. Maternal stress was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, cortisol in breast milk was analyzed using and ELIZA (enzyme immunoassay) instrument, maternal SES was assessed with a tool designed by the researcher, and infant behavior was assessed using the Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. Data were analyzed using Spearman Correlation Coefficients and multiple linear regression. The results show that the women who participated in this study had middle to high family income levels and most had a college education. The mothers also scored low on the State and Trait Anxiety test compared to the normative sample which suggests that the women who participated in this study exhibited lower than average levels of acute and chronic stress. The infants who participated in this study also tested differently than the normative sample. The infants were generally happier than the normative sample. No comparison samples were available in the literature on levels of cortisol in maternal breast milk. Spearman correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between state and trait anxiety as well as a suggestion of a relationship between trait anxiety scores and negative affectivity scores as well as between positive affectivity and negative affectivity Rothbart scores. Linear regression analysis results indicated that there were no significant relationships between the dependent and independent variables, although the independent variables did account for 16-26% of the variance in the Rothbart scores.


Hart, Sybil; Boylan, L. Mallory; Border, Barbara; Carroll, Sebrina R.; McGunegle, Daniel; Lampe, Richard M. Breast milk levels of cortisol and Secretory Immunoglobulin A (SIgA) differ with maternal mood and infant neuro-behavioral functioning. Infant Behavior & Development, Vol 27(1), 101-106.


Cortisol's concentration in breast milk of mothers (N = 32) was found positively correlated with maternal self-reported hostility, and with neonatal performance on the NBAS Autonomic Stability cluster. Greater Secretory Immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in milk was linked with mothers' heightened depression, and with neonates' superior NBAS Orientation scores.


Ingram, Jennifer C.; Greenwood, R. J.; Woolridge, M. W. (2003). Hormonal predictors of postnatal depression at 6 months in breastfeeding women. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, Vol 21(1), 61-68.


Postnatal depression occurs in 10-15% of postpartum women. Studies have shown associations with endogenous hormone levels (oestrogen, progesterone, cortisol and thyroxin) and with autoimmune thyroid dysfunction. Breastfeeding has not been shown to increase the risk of developing postpartum depression. A prospective study involving 54 breastfeeding mothers of mixed parity and similar socio-economic status and education used bivariate analysis to look for associations between hormone levels and postnatal depression. Total oestradiol, total progesterone, prolactin and thyrotropin (TSH) levels were determined at four time points (ante- and postnatally) from finger prick blood spots by fluoro-immunoassay. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and life event check lists were completed at 6 months postpartum. Ten women were screened positive for sub-clinical depression (score ≥ 10). Bivariate analysis showed that antenatal prolactin and postpartum progesterone levels were significantly associated with postnatal depression at 6 months (p=0.03). Only the result for progesterone persisted in a multiple logistic regression, which controlled for life events. Women with lower progesterone levels in the immediate postnatal period were more likely to be depressed at 6 months.


Lankarani-Fard, Azadeh; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Goodman-Gruen, Deborah. (2001). Cumulative duration of breast- feeding influences cortisol levels in postmenopausal women. Journal of Women's Health & Gender-Based Medicine, Vol 10(7), 681-687.


Cortisol levels dramatically increase during pregnancy, peak at birth, and subsequently decline. However, all previous studies examined women during pregnancy and early postpartum. None examined the long-term association of parity and lactation with cortisol levels. This study examined the relation of reproductive history to cortisol levels in postmenopausal women. Ss were 749 women, aged 50–89 yrs, who were not using estrogen in 1984–1987 when morning cortisol was measured. Parity was not significantly associated with cortisol. However, women who breast-fed for >12 mo had significantly higher cortisol levels than women who breast-fed for shorter durations or not at all. This association was stronger among women with three or more births. Duration of breast-feeding is a determinant of cortisol levels in postmenopausal women. Because both increased cortisol and increased duration of breast-feeding may play protective roles in certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, the authors suggest that the beneficial effect of lactation on the course of these diseases may be mediated by cortisol.


Redwine, Laura S.; Altemus, Margaret; Leong, Yeung-Mei; Carter, C. Sue. (2001). Lymphocyte responses to stress in postpartum women: Relationship to vagal tone. Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol 26(3), 241-251.


Evaluated differential effects of breastfeeding, bottlefeeding and non-postpartum status on lymphocyte responses to stressful tasks (public speaking and mental arithmetic). 36 women (aged 20–40 yrs) were tested. To measure cellular immune responses, lymphocyte proliferation to plant lectins, poke weed mitogen (PWM) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were used. The autonomic measures, heart rate, vagal tone, blood pressure and the hormones of the HPA axis, ACTH and cortisol, were measured and their possible roles in mediating lymphocyte proliferation responses were examined. Recently parturient women who were breastfeeding or bottlefeeding had attenuated stress-induced change in lymphocyte responses to PWM compared with non-postpartum women, tested in the follicular phase of their cycle. Also, lymphocyte responses to PHA were higher in the breastfeeding group compared with non-postpartum controls. Regression analyses revealed that an index of cardiac vagal tone, but not other autonomic or endocrine measures, was positively predictive of lymphocyte proliferation to PWM. To summarize, these findings suggest that lactation and parturition can influence lymphocyte proliferation and that activity in the vagal system may influence lymphocyte responses to stress.


Marshall, Wilma Margaret. (1995). Psychophysiological aspects of lactation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 55(7-B), 3055.


The primary objective of this study was to record peripheral and hormonal psychophysiological responses during breastfeeding in order to more accurately describe the physiological changes which occur. More specifically, this study investigated whether any consistency could be observed among a group of six successfully breastfeeding women in terms of their finger temperature (FT) and skin conductance response (SCR), and in terms of their oxytocin (OXT), luteinizing hormone (LH) and cortisol responses during a feeding. This study also constituted a preliminary methodological and measurement investigation, designed to develop procedures permitting the rapid simultaneous recording and subsequent analysis of peripheral and hormonal measures during a feeding. Data were recorded for five minutes prior to the initiation of a feeding, and at one-minute intervals for the following ten minutes. Relative to the initiation of feeding, significant increases (p <05) in FT, relative to initiation, were recorded at minutes six through thirteen. When centered to the onset of Finger Temperature elevation, specific patterns of change were observed. SCR increases occurred prior to, and fell shortly after, a significant increase in finger temperature which remained elevated for the remainder of the recording period. By one minute after the onset of temperature rise there were increases in OXT, LH, and cortisol. OXT remained elevated relative to baseline with a clear second peak by minute eight. LH fell to baseline by minute three, and remained at or below baseline for the remainder of the sampling interval. Cortisol showed an intermittent pattern with an abrupt drop to baseline by minute eight. The broad context of this research has been to suggest a more integrative perspective for psychophysiology research in general, and for women's health issues in particular. The results suggest the need for more exploratory research and a series of focussed investigations considering female p.


Taylor, Alyx; Littlewood, Julia; Adams, Diana; Doré, Caroline; et al. (1994). Serum cortisol levels are related to moods of elation and dysphoria in new mothers. Psychiatry Research , Vol 54(3), 241-247.


Measured serum cortisol levels in 163 women on the 3rd day after childbirth and related these levels to their scores on self-rating scales of low and high moods. Significantly elevated levels of cortisol were found to be associated with depressed moods, and significantly lower levels characterized women who exhibited mild hypomania. Low levels of cortisol were independently associated with epidural anesthesia, while elevated levels were related to assisted delivery. There was no significant association with breast or bottle feeding. Changes in serum cortisol were thus found to parallel the mild bidirectional changes in affect that frequently follow childbirth.


Magnano, Catherine L.; Diamond, Edward J.; Gardner, Judith M. (1989). Use of salivary cortisol measurements in young infants: A note of caution. Child Development, Vol 60(5), 1099-1101.


Measured cortisol concentrations in 3 common infant milk formulas and in breast milk before and after defatting and extraction using a commercial radioimmunoassay kit. Cortisol concentrations obtained prior to defatting and extraction were equal to or higher than levels reported for salivary cortisol levels reported in newborn infants. Cortisol concentrations obtained after the defatting and extraction were lower, indicating that values obtained prior to defatting and extraction were due to cross-reacting substances as well as cortisol. As saliva samples are not routinely defatted or extracted prior to being assayed, high cortisol levels and interfering substances in formula and breast milk may contaminate salivary cortisol measurements in young infants. Findings suggest that appropriate controls should be taken when making salivary cortisol measurements in young infants to help ensure accurate results.

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